Theoretical advancements in gender-related literature has witnessed discursive shifts. Chronologically on a global level, gender theorising has advanced from the welfare approach (WA), women in development (WID), gender and development (GAD), women and development (WAD), the efficiency approach, empowerment approach, the gender and environment (GED) approach and subsequently Gender Mainstreaming. These theoretical advancements have been further strengthened by the recently concluded Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) framework and the soon to start Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). Although, there has been some progress in the implementation of the MDGs and the global gender gap index (GGGI) across various Nation-States has improved, a lot still needs to be done towards improving the state of women’s livelihoods in Africa by challenging some variations in women’s subordinations, reproduced through patriarchal domination, a gender stereotypical culture, ethnicity, issues such as early girl marriage and domestic violence. These critical vectors for gender inequality and exclusion, undermines efforts for economic empowerment and improved political representativeness of women in Africa. This paper critically examines the reality of women’s inclusion, participation, and empowerment in SSA, by drawing on methodologies (through women-specific indices) that captures the reality of women’s inclusion, participation and eventual empowerment, in order to bridge the gaps and advance the mainstreaming of women in the SGDs framework.
Prof. Dr. Bilal BİLGİN