Population of BiH as a whole and its lower territorial units depends on the birth rate and migration balance. Suprapopulation (population growth) is present in a very small number of territorial units (villages and municipalities), while depopulation (decrease of population) has affected a large number of spatial units. During the recent times, industrialization, agrarian reform and urbanization led to the migration and depopulation of biological type in rural areas in the last 30 years. Cities, as opposed to rural areas, have had so far super population, noting that now in some of them there is a biological depopulation. The form of simple renewal of the population in BiH has changed in the late 80’s of the last century. There are numerous causes of migration in the territory of BiH, but the economic and political and a security reasons were the most important. The migration demographic losses were greatest in the total demographic losses. As a result of biovitalitent, biodynamic and migration processes and relations in BiH, dominated by the depopulation spatial units, spread to over more than 3/4 of its territory. Depopulation and aging are two related demographic processes that most influence the demographic development of an area. Depopulation encouraged by emigration and low fertility is generally characterized as a problem, especially for smaller territorial units that are faced with the process of demographic extinction. Demographic change can not be solved by partial measures and small reforms. Major reforms, which will compensate population decline and aging population, will be plenty painfull. Social situation for future generations will be quite different and very uncertain looking from today's position.
Prof. Dr. Bilal BİLGİN