On-farm phenotypic characterization of indigenous chicken populations in guji zoneof oromia national reginal state, Ethiopia

International Journal of Development Research

Article ID: 
10 pages
Research Article

On-farm phenotypic characterization of indigenous chicken populations in guji zoneof oromia national reginal state, Ethiopia

Abebe Hailu, Manaye Misganaw, Abrahm Assefa, Fassil


Phenotypic characterization of indigenous chicken resources wereundertaken in Guji zone of Oromia region. Data were collected from 48 randomly selected households (HHs) using structured questionnaires. Total 244 matured local chickens of 203 and 41 female and male were involved for both qualitative and quantitative phenotypic parameters and only unrelated adult birds were sampled for the recording. The data were analyzed using SPSS software, version 22 (SPSS, 2016). The same software were used for quantitative variables such as body weight, shank length, shank circumferences, wing length (span) were analyses to obtain descriptive statistic GLM multivariate analysis and Indexing formula. The household characteristic result revealed that male were highly participated 83.3-100% in responded questionaries’ of which most of 31.3 and 37.55% from all respondents were illiterate and grade1-4 levels respectively. The livestock importance index result revealed that 0.480 (48.0%), 0.209 (20.9%), and 0.148 (14.8%) were cattle, chicken and sheep respectively. all HHs conditionally provide feed and water and used feed source of 54.2% and 16.7% of Grain + leftover and Grain crop residue. Disease incidence of 57.4% and reacted only1.3% and 4.92% of traditional and modern treatment. Owner of local chicken in the study area have market problems of 43.7% and they housed there birds constructed from different sources and Parts of house subjected were Roof, wall and floor which were made of 51.4% of wood, 22.9% of grass/bush, 14.3% of (wood + mud) 8.6% of (bamboo), and 2.9% of (bamboo + grass).Results of qualitative traitanalyzedin number and percentage of each levels of quantitative traits were comb size percent, ear lobe, super present, shank feather present were analyzed and revealed that98.8%, 68.9% 100% of presence of earlobe, super and no shank feathers in population of local chicken and alsocolors subjected neck, body and tail were dominated by 55.7%, 60.7%, and 58% of (mottled) respectively. The dominated color with 45.2% white, 42.2% golden and 61.1% blue of earlobe, eye, and shank respectively. The mean separation with standard errors of the chicken numbers population sizewere 18.5±1.97 of (3.4±.32) and (2.1± .30) with a ratio of 3.2:1 female with male. Population of young chicks were highest in umber (7.0 ± .70) followed by pullets (3.5 ±.33), hens (3.4 ±.3, cockerels (2.5 ±.32) and cocks (2.1± .30) per household respectively. The average mean values of all parameters except average body weight and Super Length were significantly different at (P<0.05) level between location.Quantitative traits between sex were significantly greater value at (p<0.05) level 2.1±0.05kg and 1.5±0.02 average body weight (ABW) of male and female respectively. Live body weight was positively correlated (r=.59, 72, .67, .73, .61, 55, P < 0.01) with Wing span top, Wing span under Body length, Chest circumference, Shank length,and Shank circumference respectively. Performances trait value of mean±SE local hens under farmer’s management condition were 16.23±.56, 12.56±.61, 6.77±.43, 77.9%, 53.7%, 5.98 ± 20, 5.98±.20, 6.04±.17,79.09±4.52, 6.00±.66, 2.79±.13, 9.19±.41, and 8.02±.32 number of eggs laid/single clutch period; Number of chicks hatched/time/hen; Number of chicks surviving to adulthood; Hatchability percentage (%); Survival percentage (%); sexual maturity of male; sexual maturity of female; age at first egg production (month; Number eggs produced/hen/year; Broodiness interval average ( weeks); Number of hatches/ year/hen; marketable age of male chicken;, marketable age of female of local chicken in the study area.All this qualitative and quantitative traits variations could be used as source of selection for improving the chickens of study area and positively affect breeding program in the future through community based improvement, conservation and setting wisely sustainable utilization programs in study area with participating indigenous farmers..

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