Growth and yield of spinach (spinacia oleracea l.) under fluctuating levels of organic and inorganic fertilizers

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Author: 
Muhammad Iqbal Jakhro, Syed Ishtiaq Shah, Amanullah, Muhammad Yaqub Zehri, Zulfiqar Ali Rahujo, Saeed Ahmed, Sher Ahmed and Muhammad Aftab Jakhro
Abstract: 

A field trial was conducted in a three replicated Randomized Complete Block Design during 2016 at Sindh Agriculture University to examine the production of spinach under varying levels of organic and inorganic fertilizers. The treatments included: T1=Control, T2=50 kg N ha-1, T3=50 kg N + 4 tons FYM ha-1, T4=50 kg N + 6 tons FYM ha-1, T5=75 kg N ha-1, T6=75 kg N + 4 tons FYM ha-1 and T7=75 kg N + 6 tons FYM ha-1 (FYM = Farm yard menure). The results revealed that spinach plantation nourished with 75 kg N + 6 t ha-1 FYM produced the plants of 37.42 cm height on average, produced 18.05 leaves plant-1, 43.31 g fresh weight, took 23.33 days to first cutting, 23.47 cm leaf length, 4.29 kg spinach yield plot-1 and 7.152 t ha-1 spinach yield. The crop fertilized with 75 kg N + 4 t ha-1 FYM produced plants of 33.05 cm height, 16.26 leaves plant-1, 39.02 g fresh weight, took 24.00 days to first cutting, 21.97 cm leaf length, 3.53 kg spinach yield plot-1 and 5.879 t ha-1 spinach yield. The crop given 75 kg N ha-1 only (no FYM) produced plants of 30.76 cm height, 14.73 leaves plant-1, 35.34 g fresh weight, took 24.67 days to first cutting, 18.55 cm leaf length, 2.97 kg spinach yield plot-1 and 4.955 t ha-1 spinach yield. The values for almost all the characters declined with decreasing N and FYM levels and spinach crop given 50 kg N ha-1 + 6 t ha-1 FYM, produced plants of 29.97 cm height, 14.70 leaves plant-1, 35.28 g fresh weight, took 26.00 days to first cutting, 18.50 cm leaf length, 2.73 kg spinach yield plot-1 and 4.545 t ha-1 spinach yield. The treatment 50 kg N ha-1 + 4 t ha-1 FYM, 50 kg ha-1 N (without FYM) as well as control resulted in decline in value for all the traits investigated, minimum being in control. It was concluded that the spinach growth and yield as substantially higher under combined application of organic manures (FYM) in addition to inorganic nitrogen (as urea); and 75 kg N + 6 t ha-1 FYM resulted in optimum crop performance; while decrease in N, FYM or N application without FYM showed adverse impact on spinach yields.

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