Plum (Prunus domestica L.) is one of the most important export crops in Palestine and climate effects on plum yield and prediction of yield in commercial plum production were studied. Palestine is the leading fresh and dried plum producer all over the world. We analyzed the mean annual temperature and precipitation using data from tenth weathers stations from the Palestine Meteorological Department, recorded in the period from 1993-2008 (15 years), with the same years plant production (rainfed) from the Palestinian Central Bureau of Statistics (PCBS). Statistical tests included a bioclimatic analysis of Palestinian meteorological stations for the period previous by using bioclimatic classification of the Earth of Rivas Martinez Salvador, with regard to simple continentality index, compensated thermicity index, annual ombrothermic index, water deficit and soil water reserve. In concluded, yield level was positively correlated to several climatic parameters the year previous to the yield years; when we applied a principal component analysis (PCA), observed that the Salfit, Tulkarem areas type plots are located at the right of axis 2, and affected by the factors of the mean monthly temperature, deficit water, compensated thermicity index, while Bethlehem, Jenin, Qalqilia, and Jerusalem were represented highest in plant production, with a proportion of the variance explained by axes 1 (49.22%). Hebron, Ramallah and Nablus areas type plots are located at the left of the axes 1 and affected by the bioclimate factors as an annual ombrothermic index except Nablus area was affected by simple continentality index, precipitation and soil water reserve. Moreover, the optimum for the production of plum is achieved with value of annual ombrothermic index more than 2.5, simple continentality index value between 15-20, compensated thermicity index value between 270-450, the temperature between 21-260C, annual rainfall between 300-900 millimeters, with the dry to humid of ombrotype and with inframediterranean to mesomediterranean of bioclimate belts or thermotype.
Prof. Dr. Bilal BİLGİN