To understand the effect of sublethal concentration of untreated sugarcane mill effluent water on vital organs of fresh water fish Tilapia mossambica was selected. The biochemical studies on Brain, Muscle and Liver have been carried out. The histological studies on Brain, Gill, Liver, kidney, Testis and ovaries have also been carried out along with control group of fishes.LC50 value was found out before the experiment by the methods of Saptami Moitra and verma (1997). The LC50 was arrived for sugarcane effluent water at a rate of 7ml/lit/per day (i.e.) considered as 1/3 of LC50 value. After 30 days of experiment the fishes from both groups were dissected out for the analysis of biochemical and histological studies. After 30 day of experiment the concentration of protein content in the control group of fishes were showed. 157±0.23 mg/gm in Brain, 105±0.10 mg/gm Muscle and 183±0.10 mg/gm in Liver. But in the case experimental group of fishes treated with sublethal concentration of untreated sugarcane effluent water showed decreased level of protein content in the Brain 55.3±0.19 mg/gm, Muscle 60±0.10 mg/gm, and Liver 130±0.10 mg/gm wet tissue. After 30 days of experiment the Brain, Gill, Liver, kidney, Testis and ovaries showed normal configuration in control group of fishes not treated with sugarcane effluent water. But in the case of experimental group of fishes after 30 days of experiment treated with untreated sugarcane water showed marked changes in Brain, Gill, Liver, Kidney, Testis and ovaries. Broken of neural bundles and scatterly arranged glial cells were found in the brain of experimental group of fishes after 30 days of exposure. Marked edema active secretion of mucous in the gill arch and gill lamellae. The gill became reddish due to haemorrhage caused by the damage of gill capillaries owing to high. Osmolysis are found in the gills after 30 days of experiment. Severve damage and marked proliferation of liver cells and necrosis of hepatic cells in the liver were found after 30 days of exposure of untreated sugarcane mill effluent water. Great damage of renal tubules and glomerular edema were observed in kidney of experimental group after 30 days of experiment treated with sugarcane mill effluent water. Testicular inflammation, strinkage of interstitial cells and vaculation of tubular cells were found in the testis of experimental group of fishes treated with sublethal concentration of sugarcane mill effluent water after 30 days of exposure. Ovaries showed atritic follicle and degeneration of youlk granules in the ovary. The ovaries were disintegrate and the oocytes were scatterly arranged due to the effect of sugar mill effluent water.
Prof. Dr. Bilal BİLGİN